Hippocrates, edited by Girolamo Mercuriale .Jacobus Francus Hippocrates Opera. "Hippocratis Coi Opera: Quae Extant Graece Et Latine Veterum Codicum Collatione Restituta, Nouo Ordine in Quattuor Classes Digesta, Interpretationis Latinae Emendatione, & Scholijs Illustrata à Heiron Mercurali Forloiviensi." Venetis- Venice "Industris ac sumptibus Juntarum." Junta 1588
, 19, , 374, , 48, , 502, , 95, 40 p. Folio. 2 volumes in one. Engraved frontispiece by Jacobus Franciscus, prelims, index. Letterpress title to each volume in red and black with Junta printer's device. Volume I: tabula with wood engraving of doctors treating patients in a hospital. to Divsional titles with decorative woodcut head pieces to tabula., including an illustration of a herb gardenthe "Quarta Classis" printers device to verso of page 95. Rebound in modern half calf over marbled boards; new endpapers
The third Greek edition of Hippocrates edited by Girolamo Mercuriale, with an index by Michele Colombo. Parallel text in two columns. Brunet " Edition assez estimée "important forthe Erotianus. Vocum Hippocraticarum collectio.and the Galen. Linguarum Hippocratis explicatioincluded at the end. Mercuriale's Censura operum Hippocratis. had previously been published by Junta in 1583.
Girolamo Mercuriale spent his life between Popes, Cardinals, emperors and grand dukes, who often sought him out as a personal physician, he taught at the most renowned Italian Universities of Padua and Bologna. Whilst leading the field in medical research Mercuriale also was aware of the importance of the ancient physicians and spent much of his life in researching ,translating and interpreting their works All his great philological activities culminated in 1588 in the publication of what is considered, if not the first, at least one of the first critical editions of the works of the great physician Hippocrates. The decorative frontispiece by Jacobus Francus shows a Hippocratic physician's tasks In the frontispiece underneath the title, Hippocrates is shown against a background of the island of Cos, his birthplace. The text in the right-hand corner reads: 'Hippocrates averts the imminent plague'. The scene thus refers to the legend that Hippocrates saved Athens from the plague (430 BC) by building a large fire. Below this scene is missing the vignette of the four medical authorities: Galen (second century AD), Hippocrates, Avicenna (980-1037), and Aetius of Amida (fl. 530). Above the title page, Hippocrates seems to be giving a tablet 'dietetica' to a woman against a background of hunting and cooking. The square to the left shows other authors who wrote on dietetics, namely Diocles of Carystus (fourth century BC), Crateuas (fl. 90 BC), and Oribasius (fourth century AD). The square to the right indicate Hippocrates' other interests in exercise and taking in good air.
The rest of the left-hand column relate to surgery, as it is headed with a banner, 'chirurgia'. Below it is a scene of two people engaged in some form of trepanning – Podalirius and Machaon were sons of Asclepius, described in Homer's Iliad as treating those wounded in battle. In the next scene, Galen is shown dissecting a body, with two of his contemporaries (whom he mentions in his work), Alexander Damascenus and Eudemus looking on. The next image below shows venesection and cupping, both forms of extracting humours. 'Nicolas Florentinus' refers to Nicolas Falcucci (d. 1411 or 1412), who had written a surgical tract as well as a commentary of Hippocrates's Aphorisms. The last scene shows the ancient anatomist Herophilus (fourth to third century BC) inspecting an instrument in front a table full of other instruments and jars (presumably for ointments and pastes) on shelves. At the bottom is written, 'tuto, cito iucunde (safely, swiftly and pleasantly)' a phrase similar to the one used in Vesalius's portrait.
The right-hand column is headed by 'Phamaceutrica', with the authorities Aetius, Mesue (777-857), and Avicenna below, all of whom had written on medicinal drugs. Underneath them two further authors of medicinal drugs, Galen and Rhazes (865-925) are active, while Hippocrates loks on. On Rhazes' table is a prescription with the abbreviated names of 'diacatholicon' and rhubarb, both laxatives, but the true identity of the rhubarb was hotly debated in the period. Below this, Theophrastus (c. 371-c. 287 BC) and Dioscorides (40-90 AD), authors on medicinal material and plants, are depicted conversing in a formal garden. By this time, a garden for the study of medicinal plants had been well established at both the Universities of Padua and Bologna. Underneath is shown a device for distillation – a furnace with a large number of alembics. In the last scene, Andromachus the Elder, physician to Nero, and Mithridates V, King of Pontus (132-63 BC) are depicted in front of pharmacy jars and rows of various ingredients. Mithridates was believed to have taken small amounts of poison in order to protect himself against poisoning, and he mixed all known antidotes into one compound, called 'Mithridation', which became synonymous with a universal cure. Andromachus was reputed to have created a universal antidote that replaced the 'Mithridation'. 'Theriac' on the jar at the feet of Andromachus refers to the universal cure developed by Galen. In the sixteenth century, there was much debate among learned physicians about the ingredients of this theriac. [exhibitions.lib.cam.ac.uk]
The wood engravings above the table of contents iof each Classis by Jacobus Francus. Rebound in modern half reversed calf over marbled boards, new endpapers; wear to joints. Decorative frontispiece damaged, censored [ Owners inscription excised?]with paper lacking and with old repair backed with plain paper; lacking lower vignette of Galen, Hippocrates, Avicenna & Aetius around the printer's device. Damp staining to upper margin of frontispiece and throughout index, entering text, also to lower right corner, until p85 of Volume I. Another damp stain to upper right corner worsening and then weakening from divisional title of Secunda classi in VolI through to page 46 of Quarta classi in Vol II; heaviest p73-319 of VolII just touching text.
Hippocrates of Kos c. 460 – c. 370 BC), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the "Father of Modern Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated (theurgy and philosophy), thus establishing medicine as a profession.
Girolamo Mercuriale /Heiron Mercurali (1530-1606), Born in the city of Forlì, the son of Giovanni Mercuriali, also a doctor, was educated at Bologna and Padua and Venice, where he received his doctorate in 1555. He was sent on a political mission to Rome. to treat pope of the time Paul IV. In Rome, he made favorable contacts and had free access to the great libraries, where with sweeping enthusiasm, he studied the classical and medical literature of the Greeks and Romans. His studies of the attitudes of the ancients toward diet, exercise and hygiene and the use of natural methods for the cure of disease culminated in the publication of his De Arte Gymnastica(Venice, 1569). With its explanations concerning the principles of physical therapy, it is considered the first book on sports medicine. The illustrations which accompanied the second edition of the work (1573) proved incredibly fertile to the Western imagination regarding the nature of athletics in the Classical world. Modern scholarship has recognized that these illustrations were largely speculative creations of Mercuriale and his collaborators. De Arte Gymnastica gave Mercuriale fame. He was called to occupy the chair of practical medicine in Padua in 1569. During this time, he translated the works of Hippocrates, and, armed with this knowledge, wrote De morbis cutaneis(1572), considered the first scientific tract on skin diseases; De morbis muliebribus ("On the diseases of women") (1582); ("On the diseases of children") (1583); De oculorum et aurium affectibus; and "Censura e dispositio operum Hippocratis" (Venice, 1583). In De morbis puerorum, Mercuriali observed contemporary trends in child-rearing. In 1573, he was called to Vienna to treat the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. The emperor, pleased with the treatment he received (although he was to die three years later), made him an imperial count palatine. Mercuriale was a prolific writer, though many books were ascribed to him that were compiled from the works of others. He remained in Padua until 1587, when he began teaching at the University of Bologna. In 1593, he was called by Ferdinando de' Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, to Pisa. Cosimo wanted to increase the prestige of the university there and offered a record salary of 1,800 gold crowns, to become 2,000 gold crowns after the second year.
Jacobus Franciscus/Giacomo Franco, b. Urbino, 1550, d. Venice, 1620; publisher of prints, bookseller, art merchant, engraver, draughtsman; son of Battista Franco; active in Venice, where in 1595 he opens a shop "all'Insegna del Sole")
Brunet;3, 170. Graesse;3, 281.; Deutsches Archäologisches Institut :Record/000712262/ 340 by 230mm (13½ by 9 inches).
ref: 2902 €3200